Skip navigation


"No peace and security, no, not so much as common friendship, can ever be established or preserved amongst men, so long as this opinion prevails, that dominion is founded in grace..." (Locke, Letter on Toleration).

Letter on Toleration



1632 CE – 1704 CE

Born in 1632, John Locke attended the University of Oxford, where he studied medicine. Locke’s early interests were scientific, and he operated on the periphery of the Scientific Revolution: he eventually became friends with Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton, two titans of modern science. It was this profession, strangely enough, that led him into politics. 


Explorations labeled “Licensed for Private Use” are available only to members of the Columbia community.